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Basic terms used in bodybuilder's nutrition

Proteins – are polypeptide chains and are the basic building substances of the whole body. They are composed of amino acids. No stock of proteins is created in humans, it is therefore necessary to regularly consume protein rich food throughout the whole day.

Proteins – also represent the group of nutritional supplements which are composed of proteins. The most common flavoured protein preparations are made of whey, casein, egg or other protein.

Amino acids – are basic building elements of proteins.

Carbohydrates – or sugars, are the basic energetic component of human food. Together with proteins and fats, they belong to the category of MACRO nutrients. For most people, and especially bodybuilders, they represent the main source of energy needed for quality sport performance. Carbohydrates are made through the process of photosynthesis, that's why they're mainly of plant origin.

Fats – or lipids. Together with carbohydrates, they are categorised among energetic components of our food. Their energetic value is very high (twice the amount of proteins and carbohydrates). Their ability to satisfy hunger is very low. Nevertheless, people fear fats in their diet, although they're so important for a large number of processes in human body. Bodybuilders' nutrition should include especially plant oils (olive oil, different nuts and seeds).

Metabolism – is an intake of nutrients and energy and their processing in the body. It is a transport of substances, their decomposition, creation of building materials or complete decomposition into waste material. Metabolism functions 24 hours a day.

Basal metabolism – is a value which describes how much calories the body burns in one day if no activity is being performed. Basal metabolism includes activities such as: breathing, heartbeat, inner organs functioning. This value is very important if you want to compose your personal menu.

What is kilojoule (kJ) and calorie (kcal)?

Both are energy units. The following ratio applies: 1 kcal = 1.184 kJ

Anabolism – is a part of metabolism when complex substances are being formed from the simpler ones. Anabolism includes especially protein synthesis, which is from a sportsman point of view an ideal state for muscle growth. Anabolism is also connected to energy storage (sugars and fats).

Catabolism – jis also a type of metabolism. Unlike anabolism, catabolism is characterised by breaking down of complex substances into simpler ones.

Positive nitrogen balance – is a state when protein synthesis prevails compared to their degradation and the muscle enters to the so called anab. window. Negative nitrogen balance manifests by an increased protein degradation rather than their synthesis.

Hypertrophy – muscle tissue growth through an increase in the volume of individual cells.

Hyperplasia – is the state when the body's tissues and cells multiply. It includes atypical changes of the tissue.

Tst – male sex hormone which is produced especially in the Leydig cells. It is the most important androgen. Its levels in the human body start to fall after 30 years of age. It is responsible for muscle mass growth, speed of regeneration and fat reduction.

Oestrogen - is the basic female sex hormone which influences the woman's body development (growth of breasts and development of the womb lining) and her attractiveness. Oestrogen is present in the male body as well and it regulates the development of sperms and libido.

Supplements – term used to name all products of supplementary nutrition (proteins, amino acids, BCAAs, vitamins, minerals, tste, boosters etc.)

Regeneration - is the ability to recover damaged muscle tissue. Regeneration is influenced especially by the food composition and sufficient sleep.

Muscle memory – the ability of the organism to recover the lost muscle mass that has been once present in a very short time.